CENTER OF HIGH TECHNOLOGIES OF FEDERAL STATE UNITARY ENTERPRISE F.V.LUKIN NIIFP: ANALYTICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO – AND NANOSTRUCTURES In this publication the Center of high technologies of Federal State Unitary Enterprise F.V.Lukin NIIFP as a powerful scientific and technological complex intended for the development of nanoelectronics and MEMS based on modern elements base is presented. The Center structure, its functionality and development prospects are shown. A brief analysis of the development of micro and nanoelectronics tendencies is considered. The description of the NANOFAB-100 complex technological cluster, appointment and functionality of separate analytical and technological modules is given. Analytical possibilities of collective using of the Center are described and methods of research methods of various heterostructures used for development of the nanoelectronics element base are listed. Prospects and necessity of synchronous radiation of the synchrotron "Zelenograd" synchronous radiation application for problems solving through investigation of various nanoelectronic structures and in the process of production of integrated circuits using X-ray nanolithograhy are described.
NANOELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEXES USING MASKLESS LITHOGRAPHY This paper presents a novel approach to build up a closed cycle cluster complexes for development and small-scale production of micro and nanoelectronics’ base of LSI and VLSI chips with the help of high performance maskless multibeam lithography and dry finish cleaning and planarization by accelerated large Van-der-Waals clusters. Technology line’s "flexability" and adaptability for a selected process is based on the line module construction, that incorporates a single ultrahigh vacuum automatic transport system. Besides technological clusters the technological line can include metrological and analytical modules, topology correcting modules that provide design and small-scale production of nanoelectronics element base with the technology level 22–14nm.
TAKING A ZIGZAG COURSE ALONG BIOLOGY AND MICROELECTRONICS CONVERGENCE. MEMORY ABOUT THE FUTURE In connection with the concept of science convergence set out by M.Kovalchuk, some works in the sphere of "studying the construction of living systems and copying them in the form of modal technical systems", a part of the concept, that had been run in NIIFP in 1965–1985 are described. The possibility to design molecular nano-manipulators of enzyme and nucleoprotein complexs types is discussed.
X-RAY INTERFERENCE LITHOGRAPHY FOR FORMING ORDERED NANOSTRUCTURES The principles of forming ordered nanostructures using X-ray interference lithography is considered. A method for fabrication of an ordered polymer nanofilter with up to 1-nm elements using photoetching of a thin polymer film by means of space-structured synchrotron radiation is described in detail. Some technological aspects of fabrication of ordered periodical metallic nanostructures by means of interference lithography and multilevel membrane technology are discussed.
SYNCHRONOUS RADIATION TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES FOR PRODUCING AND TREATMENT OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS Performance capabilities of synchrotron radiation technology for production and treatment of nanostructured biomedical materials and hybrid bioinorganic structures are discussed. Synchrotron is an universal instrument for these purposes providing a technological triad: technology itself, analytics and metrology.
JOSEPHSON JUNCTIONS: ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES, FIELD OF APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS The main types of low-temperature Josephson junctions on the base of niobium technology (SIS, SNS and SDS junctions), their designs and mechanisms of current transport are considered. The voltage-current characteristics of Josephson junctions and their distinctive features depending on junction type are available. Key parameters of Josephson junctions responsible for their quality and practical value are defined. The Josephson junctions formation technology is presented and the influence of superconducting heterostructure quality, including the state of functional layers boundaries, on junctions electric characteristics is shown. Field of applications of the main types of Josephson junctions according to their properties is defined. The prospects of further Josephson junctions development, their technology and design are given.
MICROWAVE EMISSION OF Nb/Α-SI/Nb JOSEPHSON JUNCTION CHAIN For the first time generation measurements of low-temperature SDS Josephson junctions chains on the base of superconducting Nb/α-Si/Nb heterostructure are carried out. Comparison of radiation capacity of SDS junctions chains with radiation of Josephson junctions chains on the base of high-temperature superconductors is performed. SDS junctions application perspectiveness for creation of generators of millimeter and submillimeter wave bands are given. It is shown that the width of the generation line depends on disorder the normal resistance of Josephson junctions in the chain.
DIGITAL SYSTEMS FOR RECEIVING AND PROCESSING INFORMATION ON THE BASIS OF SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRONICS We present a description of the principle elements of a superconducting fully digital receiver: superconducting analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a signal processor. We have examined the work of the most successful ADC based on the Josephson effect and the effect of the magnetic flux quantization (both the parallel and the oversampling ADCs). We demonstrated prospects for a software-defined radio and TV set using superconducting electronic devices.
FEATURE-ORIENTED SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY: PRECISION MEASUREMENTS, NANOMETROLOGY, BOTTOM-UP NANOTECHNOLOGIES A brief description of a group of methods forming a feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy (FOSPM) is given. FOSPM is a new approach to scanning probe microscopy where a surface under measurement or modification is represented by a set of features, each of which is characterized by its own collection of features, rather than by a "dead" array of scan points. Working with the surface features at room temperature will not only permit to considerably increase precision of surface topography measurement and notably improve resolution of the probe microscope but also create a free-running multiprobe bottom-up nanomanufacturing in the near future.
SELF-ORGANIZED NANOSTRUCTURES: CARBON-METAL AND SUPERSTRUCTURES OF MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES In the present work new types of topologically closed carbon and carbon-metal nanostructures are discussed. We report the results of experimental observation of nanotoroids for both carbon and carbon-metal superstructures by means of atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Observed toroidal nanostructures were produced by plasma methods with simultaneous magnetron sputtering of Mo and Cr in argon atmosphere. Carbon-metal nanocapsules with shapes similar to nanodisks reminding human erythrocytes also were observed. Phenomenon of self-magnetic nanoparticles organization on very smooth (gold on HOPG) surfaces that leads to formation of chains, double chains, helices and nanotubes of magnetic nanoparticles is also discussed.
NICKEL NANOPARTICLES REDUCE TEMPERATURE OF SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES A method for deposition of catalytic nanoparticles (CNPs) of nickel on a smooth substrate surface is suggested. CNP deposition is carried out in glow-discharge Ar-plasma. CNPs are intended for synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNSs) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. Due to high activity of the CNPs, temperature of CNS synthesis was reduced from 750 to 150°С. A method that improves control of size, shape and scattering density over the surface of the formed CNPs is suggested.
KINETICS OF SILVER CLUSTERS FORMATION ON AMORPHOUS CARBON IN THE PROCESS OF VACUUM THERMAL EVAPORATION Evolution of silver thin films of different thickness, deposited on amorphous carbon in a heating procedure in vacuum are investigated in order to develop the concept of nanoclusters array formation as a result of film decomposition to droplets. Factors that determine the cluster diameters that result in the thin film decomposition process were studied. For 1-8nm films an unimodal distribution of the number of cluster dimensions is typical. Films of such thickness are not uniform but are constituted of agglomeration arrays that in the annealing process at 230ºC break down to form stand-alone clusters. Under decomposition of films with thickness more then 10nm there are two groups of main cluster diameters. Bimodal distribution is due to incomplete silver film break down to droplets. Silver nanoclusters annealing in hydrogen sulphide atmosphere for 12 hours leads to formation of a monoclinic silver sulphide Ag2S lattice.
SOME FEATURES OF LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES ON THE BASIS OF HETEROSTRUCTURES WITH INTERNAL INJECTION AMPLIFICATION A new type of multipass emitting heterostructures is considered. These heterostructures have inner injection amplifying. The active area consists of two or more layers with different thickness, doping and energy gap. The resources of these structures and the criterions of injection amplifying are investigated. These criterions are also valid for structures with an absorbing substrate. LEDs and lasers on the base of such structures are investigated. In LEDs the significant rise of external quantum efficiency takes place when current density exceeds some threshold. In lasers the relaxation oscillations of current and emission near threshold are revealed. The effect of self-cooling of a layer with narrow energy gap is possible in LEDs and lasers. The effect of thin film is possible in structures with thick films. Heterostructures with inner injection amplifying are perspective for semiconductor emitters refinement.
LASER ON THE BASE OF A THIN-FILM P-N HETEROSTRUCTURE For the first time semiconductor lasers on the base of multipass thin-film p-n heterostructures are investigated. The thin-film multipass laser p-n heterostructure with thickness of 13–30μm was mounted on a substrate-carrier. The radiation spectra, threshold currents and quantum efficiency of a thin-film multipass laser array configuration are investigated experimentally. An external quantum efficiency of a thin-film multipass laser was 77% at Т = 300K and more than 90% at Т = 77K. The research results have been compared with similar results for thick-film multipass lasers. The improvement of parameters of thin-film lasers in comparison with thick-film has been shown.
LED ON THE BASE OF A MULTIPASS THIN-FILM HETEROSTRUCTURE Certain designs of light-emitting diode chips on the basis of multipass thin-film p-n heterostructures are considered. For manufacturing LED chips a high-temperature glue was used for mounting thin-film p-n heterostructures (15–30 μm) on a substrate-carrier. Some characteristics of light-emitting diodes were investigated experimentally. External quantum efficiency of thin-film multipass light emmiting chips was more than 20%, and of LEDs on the basis of such chips was more than 30%. The superiority of thin-film LEDs diodes over thick-film ones is shown.
TERAHERTZ ELECTRONICS. AUTOEMITTERS ON THE BASE OF DIAMOND MICROCONICAL BODIES AND GRAPHEME New approaches to the design of an autoemitter that is necessary for microwave systems of 0.1–1 THz band microwave systems systems are considered. Primary investigation was given to a large volume of scientific literature addressed to autoemitters. The pivotal motive for such analysis involves causation that prevents the effective autoemitter design. It was found that electrode shorting, emitting microstructures height spread and provision of high vacuum that is needed to reduce the number of electrons that destroy the emitting structures could be the cause of this. In this paper it was proposed to use high density diamond microconical bodies as emitting structures. Diamond possesses high mechanical strength that decreases ions destructive effect. The microconical bodies height spread is reduced by reverse lithography. It’s main point involves at first formation on the silicon surface a mask with minimal permissible dimension on top of witch a doped diamond layer is grown. A control grapheme electrode is proposed that assumes total absence of holes relative to witch it is necessary to align microspikes.
MEMRISTORS – A NEW TYPE OF ELEMENTS OF RESISTIVE MEMORY FOR NANOELECTRONICS Possibilities of formation of memristive structures by various technological methods and with various barrier layers materials are considered. Prospects of memristor application the development of semiconductor electronics are shown. The technology of experimental memristor samples formation is described. Preliminary results of a pilot study of memristive Pt/TiO2/TiOx/Pt structures are presented. The "forming" (electroforming) process and the sequential change of the current-voltage characteristic is shown. A typical current-voltage characteristic of a Pt/TiO2/TiOx/Pt memristor after carrying out electroforming process is provided.
MODELING OF LOW-VOLTAGE NANOMETER MERGED MOS DEVICES A new type of low-voltage nanometer-sized device – the merged MOS transistor (MMOS) is considered. The design and operation are described. The MMOS with a minimal topological size of 10nm is simulated and shown working at supply voltage of not less than 0.1V.
MDS DEVICES DIELECTRIC FILMS MODIFICATION Basic methods for MDS gate dielectric films modification and particularities of their application for parameters correction, defects minimization and MDS reliability improvement are considered. The influence of thermal injection and plasma processing on MDS structures characteristics was studied. It is shown that at the process of strong field tunnel electrons injection the negative charge thermal stability part accumulated in the phosphosilicate glass (PSG) layer of structures with double layered SiO2-PSG gate dielectric can be utilized to adjust the threshold voltage, charge stability, and MDS devices breakdown voltage.
POLYMER MATERIALS FOR ANALOG PRESSURE SENSORS Piezoresistive properties of synthesized acrylic polymers with filler medium in the form of grapheme microparticles were investigated. Composite conductance versus load curve has a linear character in the rang from basis point to units of megapascals, the composite sensitivity to pressure changes by an order with the change of incorporated into the composite carbon by 10 percents. The dynamic range is a score of several tens.